Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers

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Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
1 1
1 1
1 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
VV
VV
V
olume 1olume 1
olume 1olume 1
olume 1
WW
WW
W
inter 2002inter 2002
inter 2002inter 2002
inter 2002
CC
CC
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itizenitizen
itizenitizen
itizen
G G
G G
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uideuide
uideuide
uide
toto
toto
to
AA
AA
A
labamalabama
labamalabama
labama
R R
R R
R
iversivers
iversivers
ivers
Black WarriorBlack Warrior
Black WarriorBlack Warrior
Black Warrior
andand
andand
and
CahabaCahaba
CahabaCahaba
Cahaba
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
2 2
2 2
2 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
CONTENTSCONTENTS
CONTENTSCONTENTS
CONTENTS
Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Volume 1 Black Warrior and Cahaba
Volume 2 Alabama, Coosa and Tallapoosa
Volume 3 Chattahoochee and Coastal Plain Streams
Volume 4 Tennessee
Volume 5 Escatawpa, Mobile and Tombigbee
About these GuidesAbout these Guides
About these GuidesAbout these Guides
About these Guides
Alabama’s rivers, streams and lakes
are priceless in terms of the ecological,
economic and social benefits they provide.
The purpose of this guide is to offer
an introduction to the unique history and
environmental significance of Alabama’s
River Basins and invite further
investigation into Alabama’s abundant
but vulnerable water resources.
It is hoped that these guides will enhance
the dialogue between citizens and key
decision makers and help us move toward
strategies of how to best manage
and protect Alabama’s waters.
EE
EE
E
ditorditor
ditorditor
ditor
, D, D
, D, D
, D
esign and Layesign and Lay
esign and Layesign and Lay
esign and Lay
out: out:
out: out:
out: Wendi Hartup, Allison Busby,
and Bill Deutsch
Contributers: Contributers:
Contributers: Contributers:
Contributers: Justin Ellis and Eric Reutebuch
UU
UU
U
nlabeled Pnlabeled P
nlabeled Pnlabeled P
nlabeled P
hotos and Ghotos and G
hotos and Ghotos and G
hotos and G
raphics: raphics:
raphics: raphics:
raphics: Alabama Water Watch
This guide is funded in part by a grant from the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4
(Clean Water Act, Section 319), and the
Alabama Department of Environmental Management.
COCO
COCO
CO
VER.VER.
VER.VER.
VER. Locust Fork River.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: BETH MAO: BETH MA
O: BETH MAO: BETH MA
O: BETH MA
YNOR YOUNGYNOR YOUNG
YNOR YOUNGYNOR YOUNG
YNOR YOUNG
THE WTHE W
THE WTHE W
THE W
AA
AA
A
TER ENVIRTER ENVIR
TER ENVIRTER ENVIR
TER ENVIR
ONMENTONMENT
ONMENTONMENT
ONMENT
33
33
3
THE RIVER BTHE RIVER B
THE RIVER BTHE RIVER B
THE RIVER B
ASINSASINS
ASINSASINS
ASINS
44
44
4
LIFE ALONG THE RIVERSLIFE ALONG THE RIVERS
LIFE ALONG THE RIVERSLIFE ALONG THE RIVERS
LIFE ALONG THE RIVERS
66
66
6
SPECIAL PLANTS AND ANIMALSSPECIAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS
SPECIAL PLANTS AND ANIMALSSPECIAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS
SPECIAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS
88
88
8
LAND USE IN THE RIVER BLAND USE IN THE RIVER B
LAND USE IN THE RIVER BLAND USE IN THE RIVER B
LAND USE IN THE RIVER B
ASINSASINS
ASINSASINS
ASINS
1010
1010
10
BB
BB
B
ALANCING ECONOMY ANDALANCING ECONOMY AND
ALANCING ECONOMY ANDALANCING ECONOMY AND
ALANCING ECONOMY AND
ENVIRENVIR
ENVIRENVIR
ENVIR
ONMENT IN THE RIVER BONMENT IN THE RIVER B
ONMENT IN THE RIVER BONMENT IN THE RIVER B
ONMENT IN THE RIVER B
ASINSASINS
ASINSASINS
ASINS
1212
1212
12
WW
WW
W
AA
AA
A
TER POLICYTER POLICY
TER POLICYTER POLICY
TER POLICY
, LA, LA
, LA, LA
, LA
W ANDW AND
W ANDW AND
W AND
CITIZEN INVCITIZEN INV
CITIZEN INVCITIZEN INV
CITIZEN INV
OLOL
OLOL
OL
VEMENTVEMENT
VEMENTVEMENT
VEMENT
1414
1414
14
WW
WW
W
ANT MORE?ANT MORE?
ANT MORE?ANT MORE?
ANT MORE?
1616
1616
16
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: ALLISON BO: ALLISON B
O: ALLISON BO: ALLISON B
O: ALLISON B
USBYUSBY
USBYUSBY
USBY
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
3 3
3 3
3 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
9
9
9
9
The WThe W
The WThe W
The W
orld’orld’
orld’orld’
orld’
s Ws W
s Ws W
s W
ater Supplyater Supply
ater Supplyater Supply
ater Supply
If all the Earth’s water fit into a
one literone liter
one literone liter
one liter container,
❖
970 mL970 mL
970 mL970 mL
970 mL of the container would be
saltwater
❖
30 mL30 mL
30 mL30 mL
30 mL (nail polish container)
would be freshwater which
includes: water vapor, lakes,
rivers, polar ice caps, and
groundwater.
❖ Only
2 dr2 dr
2 dr2 dr
2 dr
opsops
opsops
ops of
freshwater are in lakes
and rivers.
The Water EnvironmentThe Water Environment
The Water EnvironmentThe Water Environment
The Water Environment
NaturNatur
NaturNatur
Natur
e’e’
e’e’
e’
s Ws W
s Ws W
s W
ater Recycling Prater Recycling Pr
ater Recycling Prater Recycling Pr
ater Recycling Pr
oo
oo
o
gg
gg
g
ramram
ramram
ram
When rain falls to the earth, it sinks into the ground (
infiltrationinfiltration
infiltrationinfiltration
infiltration),
returns to the air (
evev
evev
ev
aporation aporation
aporation aporation
aporation and
transpirationtranspiration
transpirationtranspiration
transpiration) or flows over
the land surface (
rr
rr
r
unoffunoff
unoffunoff
unoff). Surface runoff carries dissolved and
suspended substances, such as chemicals and sediment. Land use
activities in a watershed directly affect both
water quality
and
quantity
. Water supplies are not limitless. No
new
water is ever
created, it only recycles.
Alabama’Alabama’
Alabama’Alabama’
Alabama’
s Rich Ws Rich W
s Rich Ws Rich W
s Rich W
ater Resourater Resour
ater Resourater Resour
ater Resour
cesces
cesces
ces
Alabama contains more than 77,000 miles of streams,
3.6 million acres of wetlands and 560,000 acres of
lakes, ponds and reservoirs.
Alabama has more navigable rivers (1,438 miles) than
any other state.
River systems which flow through Alabama are the
fourth largest in North America, exceeded only by the
Mississippi, Yukon and Columbia River systems.
About 8% of water in the continental U.S. originates
or flows through Alabama.
What is a WWhat is a W
What is a WWhat is a W
What is a W
atershed?atershed?
atershed?atershed?
atershed?
A
watershed watershed
watershed watershed
watershed is the total land area that drains to a
common point, such as a river, a lake or the ocean.
Watersheds come in many sizes.
Very large watersheds are also called
drainagedrainage
drainagedrainage
drainage
basinsbasins
basinsbasins
basins. For example the Alabama, Black Warrior,
Cahaba, Coosa, Tallapoosa and Tombigbee River
watersheds are all part of the greater Mobile Basin.
Everyone lives in a watershed, no matter how far
they are from a river or lake.
The Hydrologic Cycle, or the Water Cycle, links land, air and water
within a watershed.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: STEPHEN ADDUCI AND PERDUE PESTICIDE PRO: STEPHEN ADDUCI AND PERDUE PESTICIDE PR
O: STEPHEN ADDUCI AND PERDUE PESTICIDE PRO: STEPHEN ADDUCI AND PERDUE PESTICIDE PR
O: STEPHEN ADDUCI AND PERDUE PESTICIDE PR
OGRAMSOGRAMS
OGRAMSOGRAMS
OGRAMS
The Mobile Basin is the largest watershed in Alabama,
draining 3/4 of the water flowing through the state.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: MOBILE BO: MOBILE B
O: MOBILE BO: MOBILE B
O: MOBILE B
AA
AA
A
Y NAY NA
Y NAY NA
Y NA
TIONAL ESTUARY PRTIONAL ESTUARY PR
TIONAL ESTUARY PRTIONAL ESTUARY PR
TIONAL ESTUARY PR
OGRAMOGRAM
OGRAMOGRAM
OGRAM
Gulf of Mexico
Florida
Georgia
Mississippi
Tennessee
Alabama
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
4 4
4 4
4 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Smith Lake was created in 1961 and
covers 21,200 acres. It is the deepest
reservoir in Alabama and has a trophy
striped bass fishery.
A cold water trout fishery is located just
below Smith Lake Dam. Every 60 days
3,000 rainbow trout are released.
The second and third longest free-
flowing rivers in Alabama are the
Mulberry Fork and Locust Fork
tributaries that combine to form the
Black Warrior River at the Jefferson/
Walker county line.
The Black Warrior Basin
(in blue) covers
6,392 square miles,
nearly three times the
area of the Cahaba Basin.
The streams within the Black Warrior Basin flow through 15 counties
(Jefferson, Walker, Tuscaloosa, Hale, Greene, Marshall, Etowah,
Blount, Morgan, Cullman, Lawrence, Winston, Fayette, Bibb, and
Perry) before draining into the Tombigbee River near Demopolis.
The River BasinsThe River Basins
The River BasinsThe River Basins
The River Basins
The William B. Bankhead National Forest is Alabama’s largest. It
covers 180,000 acres and spreads over most of Winston County and
north into Lawrence County. It is home to Alabama’s only nationally
designated Wild and Scenic River, the Sipsey Fork.
Within the Bankhead Forest is the Sipsey Wilderness,
26,000 acres specially protected to restore and preserve the natural
conditions of the area. A maze of ridges, canyons and streams gives
it the name, “land of a thousand waterfalls.”
Construction of a series of four locks began
in 1895 on the Black Warrior River to
provide “river highways” to Mobile. These
original locks were replaced by larger dams
to increase navigational depth. The power
of the Black Warrior River was later
harnessed with turbines to generate
electricity.
The John Hollis Bankhead Lock and Dam is the first
dam on the main stem of the Black Warrior River. This
dam flooded the world’s largest stand of Shoal Lilies.
The Holt Dam and the William Bacon
Oliver Lock and Dam are located near
Tuscaloosa, home of the University of
Alabama. Tuscaloosa was the state
capital from 1926 to 1946.
Inland Lake on a tributary
of the Locust Fork is an
important water supply to
Birmingham.
The Black Warrior and Cahaba Rivers are the only two river basins
with their headwaters and mouth in Alabama.
The last lock and dam is the
Armistead I. Seldon,
commonly called the
Warrior Dam.
A small reservoir was built on Village Creek
in 1890 and served as Birmingham’s original
water supply until it became too polluted for
consumption.
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
5 5
5 5
5 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Lake Purdy is a vital source of
Birmingham’s water supply,
especially in the dry months.
The “Lost WThe “Lost W
The “Lost WThe “Lost W
The “Lost W
orld” of Alabamaorld” of Alabama
orld” of Alabamaorld” of Alabama
orld” of Alabama
The Bibb County Glades covers 303 acres and
is home to over 60 rare plants. The dwarf horse-
nettle, thought to be extinct since the early
1880’s, was recently rediscovered. Eight newly
described plants and dozens of rare aquatic
species make this a biological “lost world,” and
one of the greatest concentrations of rare plants
in the southeastern U.S.
The Cahaba River begins as a small spring-
fed stream on Cahaba Mountain where it
makes its way through St. Clair County and
Trussville before draining to Birmingham.
South of Centreville, the Talladega National Forest
(Oakmulgee Division) encompasses much of the watershed.
The streams within the Cahaba Basin flow through eight counties
(Jefferson, Tuscaloosa, Bibb, Dallas, St. Clair, Perry, Chilton, and
Shelby) before entering the Alabama River at Selma.
The Birmingham metropolitan area
receives over half of its water supply
from the Cahaba River.
Approximately 53 million
gallons a day are
withdrawn from the
Cahaba River for
drinking water.
The Cahaba River Basin (in blue)
encompasses 1,870 square miles
and is the longest free-flowing
river in Alabama.
The upper part of the Cahaba River
journeys through steep banks and
rocky shoals until it crosses the
Fall Line, a geologic boundary
marking the end of the Appalachian
Mountains and the beginning of the
Coastal Plains.
The lower part of the Cahaba River
transitions so dramatically that it
might be mistaken for a different
river entirely. Its meandering path
slows down, widens and deepens,
creating beach-like sandbars and
cypress swamps.
Sometimes called “the most floated river in Alabama,”
the Cahaba River is frequently used by canoeists,
fishermen and others for recreation. Tom Foshee’s
book, Canoe Trips in Alabama, is a classic guide to the
Cahaba River.
CAHABCAHAB
CAHABCAHAB
CAHAB
A RIVER. A RIVER.
A RIVER. A RIVER.
A RIVER.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: BETH MAO: BETH MA
O: BETH MAO: BETH MA
O: BETH MA
YNOR YOUNGYNOR YOUNG
YNOR YOUNGYNOR YOUNG
YNOR YOUNG
The Cahaba River has been described asThe Cahaba River has been described as
The Cahaba River has been described asThe Cahaba River has been described as
The Cahaba River has been described as
the heart river of Alabama,the heart river of Alabama,
the heart river of Alabama,the heart river of Alabama,
the heart river of Alabama,
the crown jewel of the Mobile River system,the crown jewel of the Mobile River system,
the crown jewel of the Mobile River system,the crown jewel of the Mobile River system,
the crown jewel of the Mobile River system,
an island of harmony in a busy world. an island of harmony in a busy world.
an island of harmony in a busy world. an island of harmony in a busy world.
an island of harmony in a busy world.


Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
6 6
6 6
6 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
PrPr
PrPr
Pr
ehistoric Empirehistoric Empir
ehistoric Empirehistoric Empir
ehistoric Empir
eses
eses
es
Over 20 flat-topped earthen mounds spread over
317-acres have been dated to the prehistoric Mississippian
era, before DeSoto’s arrival in Alabama in 1540. An
extensive empire of mound-building Indians existed
along a 50-mile swath of the Black Warrior River, from
Tuscaloosa to Demopolis.
Moundville, described by
National Geographic
as
“the Big Apple of the 14th century,” was the single largest
community north of Mexico during the 14th century
and today is regarded by archaeologists as the best
preserved prehistoric settlement in the eastern U. S.
Life Along the RiversLife Along the Rivers
Life Along the RiversLife Along the Rivers
Life Along the Rivers
The Black Warrior River The Black Warrior River
The Black Warrior River The Black Warrior River
The Black Warrior River is named after the Indian
Chief Tascaluza (Tuscaloosa). In the Choctaw language
tashka
means “warrior” and
lusa
means “black.”
When the Spanish explorer, DeSoto, forced Chief
Tascaluza to accompany him to the town of Mabila for
supplies and women, Indians loyal to the chief resisted.
The resulting Battle of Mabila in 1540 was one of the
bloodiest conflicts between Indians and Europeans.
Another name for the Black Warrior River in the 1700’s
was
Apotaka hacha
, meaning “border river,” since it
served as the boundary between Choctaw, Chickasaw
and Creek Indian territories.
CovCov
CovCov
Cov
erer
erer
er
ed Bridged Bridg
ed Bridged Bridg
ed Bridg
es in the Black Wes in the Black W
es in the Black Wes in the Black W
es in the Black W
arrior Basinarrior Basin
arrior Basinarrior Basin
arrior Basin
Blount County features three covered bridges:
❖ Horton Mill Covered Bridge, 70 feet above Calvert
Prong near Oneonta, is higher above water than
any other covered bridge in the U.S.
❖ The 95-foot long tin-topped Easley Covered
Bridge spans Dub Branch.
❖ Swann Covered Bridge extends 324 feet over the
Locust Fork River.
Cullman County has the largest covered truss bridge:
❖ Clarkson-Legg Covered Bridge stretches 270 feet
across Crooked Creek off Highway 278.
LOCUST FORK RIVER AT SWANN BRIDGE. One of the most
popular whitewater runs in the state.
PHOTO: BETH MAYNOR YOUNG
SQUAW SHOALS (1913). Historic photo of Squaw Shoals which
was the world’s largest stand of Shoal Lilies.
PHOTO: W.S. HOOLE
SPECIAL COLLECTIONS LIBRARY, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
The Sloss Furnaces, designated a National Historic
Landmark, served Birmingham from 1881 to 1971. In
its prime, the furnaces were used to heat coal, limestone
and ore and turned out 400 tons of finished pig iron a
day. The ironworks now serve as a massive walk-through
museum portraying the city’s industrial past.
River commerce has always been important on the Black
Warrior River. In the 1870’s there were 118 boat
landings. Goods from throughout the region, including
north Alabama and Tennessee, were brought by flatboat
to Tuscaloosa for shipment to Mobile. After 1820,
steamboats replaced the use of flatboats. The export of
coal to Mobile was the key to development of the region,
with cotton playing a close second.
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
7 7
7 7
7 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
The Cahaba RiverThe Cahaba River
The Cahaba RiverThe Cahaba River
The Cahaba River
derived its name from
the Choctaw word
oka
meaning “water” and
aba
meaning “above.” The Choctaw and
Creek Indians drew their territorial
boundaries with the Cahaba River.
Alabama’s first governor, William Wyatt
Bibb, chose a site at the mouth of the Cahaba
River for the first capital, Cahawba, in 1820.
The site was chosen for its riverine beauty,
springs of good water, prospect of health,
ability to support navigation and its access
to extensive and fertile country.
The Cahaba ends its 190-mile journey in
the Black Belt region, cutting through the
fossil-rich Selma chalk beds before flowing
into the Alabama River at the ruins of
Cahawba, now a ghost town.
Alabama - “Arsenal of the Confederacy”Alabama - “Arsenal of the Confederacy”
Alabama - “Arsenal of the Confederacy”Alabama - “Arsenal of the Confederacy”
Alabama - “Arsenal of the Confederacy”
While coal defined the rapid developing years of the
Black Warrior Basin, iron became the symbol of progress
in the Cahaba Basin. The raw materials for iron
production were abundant: water, iron ore, timber for
charcoal, and coal from the 360 square mile coal field
at Piper. During the Civil War, six iron furnaces were
built in Alabama: Tannehill (1859), Brierfield (1861),
Little Cahaba/Brighthope (1863), Irondale (1863) and
Oxmoor (1863). These furnaces produced more iron
than all other Southern states combined, giving Alabama
the name “Arsenal of the Confederacy.”
Native Sons and Daughters
Famous folks from the Black Warrior and Cahaba Basins include:
❖
FF
FF
F
annie Fannie F
annie Fannie F
annie F
lagglagg
lagglagg
lagg (Birmingham) - actress and writer,
Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe
❖
EE
EE
E
mmylou Hmmylou H
mmylou Hmmylou H
mmylou H
arrisarris
arrisarris
arris (Birmingham) - country singer
❖
EE
EE
E
rskine Hrskine H
rskine Hrskine H
rskine H
awkinsawkins
awkinsawkins
awkins (Birmingham) - jazz composer and trumpet player, most popular WWII era song,
Tuxedo Junction
❖
CorCor
CorCor
Cor
etta Scott Kingetta Scott King
etta Scott Kingetta Scott King
etta Scott King (Marion) - civil rights leader
❖
WW
WW
W
illie Millie M
illie Millie M
illie M
aysays
aysays
ays (Westfield) - professional baseball player
❖
MM
MM
M
argarargar
argarargar
argar
et Det D
et Det D
et D
eBeB
eBeB
eB
arar
arar
ar
deleben deleben
deleben deleben
deleben
TT
TT
T
utwilerutwiler
utwilerutwiler
utwiler (Birmingham) - U.S. Ambassador to Morocco
❖
LL
LL
L
urleen Burleen B
urleen Burleen B
urleen B
urns urns
urns urns
urns
WW
WW
W
allaceallace
allaceallace
allace (Tuscaloosa) - first female governor of Alabama
The Tannehill Ironworks, begun in 1836, is now a
1,500 acre Historical State Park. It was an iron plantation
that utilized approximately 600 slaves to forge the iron,
cut the timber and grow the food necessary to support
the large industry. The furnaces were destroyed by
Wilson’s raiders in the final hours of the Civil War in
1856.
The first surface coal mine in Alabama, the Cahaba field,
began operation in Bibb County in 1815. The first
underground mine was established in Shelby County in
1856.
CAHABCAHAB
CAHABCAHAB
CAHAB
A RIVER. A RIVER.
A RIVER. A RIVER.
A RIVER. “This is just the right size river, too big to wade, too small
to boat and perfect to canoe.” John C. Henley III
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: BETH MAO: BETH MA
O: BETH MAO: BETH MA
O: BETH MA
YNOR YOUNGYNOR YOUNG
YNOR YOUNGYNOR YOUNG
YNOR YOUNG
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
8 8
8 8
8 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Special PlantSpecial Plant
Special PlantSpecial Plant
Special Plant
Alabama ranks tenth in the nation for the most types of native p
are over 4,000 species of plants, 850 species of animals (inc
Of these plants and animals, 122 are threatened or endan
The Black Warrior River supports 126 species of fish, many
of which are at risk. In 1974, 78 species of fish were
documented in the Sipsey Fork, an incredibly high number
for such a small watershed.
The endangered Vermillion Darter (
Etheostoma chermocki
)
is only found in a five mile portion of Turkey Creek in
Jefferson County.
The state’s largest tree is a 500-year old, 150-foot tall
Yellow Poplar (
Liriodendron tulipifera
) located in the
Bankhead National Forest. The Choctaw name for the
poplar is
Sipsi
(Sipsey).
FLAFLA
FLAFLA
FLA
TTENED MUSK TURTTENED MUSK TUR
TTENED MUSK TURTTENED MUSK TUR
TTENED MUSK TUR
TLE, TLE,
TLE, TLE,
TLE,
Sternotherus deprSternotherus depr
Sternotherus deprSternotherus depr
Sternotherus depr
essusessus
essusessus
essus
. .
. .
. Found
only in the Black Warrior River system, north of Tuscaloosa.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: MALCOLM PIERSONO: MALCOLM PIERSON
O: MALCOLM PIERSONO: MALCOLM PIERSON
O: MALCOLM PIERSON
WW
WW
W
AA
AA
A
TERCRESS DTERCRESS D
TERCRESS DTERCRESS D
TERCRESS D
ARAR
ARAR
AR
TER, TER,
TER, TER,
TER,
Etheostoma nuchaleEtheostoma nuchale
Etheostoma nuchaleEtheostoma nuchale
Etheostoma nuchale
. .
. .
.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: O:
O: O:
O:
THREATHREA
THREATHREA
THREA
TENEDTENED
TENEDTENED
TENED
AND ENDAND END
AND ENDAND END
AND END
ANGERED SPECIES OF ALABANGERED SPECIES OF ALAB
ANGERED SPECIES OF ALABANGERED SPECIES OF ALAB
ANGERED SPECIES OF ALAB
AMA: A GUIDE TAMA: A GUIDE T
AMA: A GUIDE TAMA: A GUIDE T
AMA: A GUIDE T
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRYO ASSIST WITH FORESTRY
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRYO ASSIST WITH FORESTRY
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY
AA
AA
A
CTIVITIESCTIVITIES
CTIVITIESCTIVITIES
CTIVITIES
WW
WW
W
aterater
aterater
ater
crcr
crcr
cr
ess Darter National Wildlife Refugess Darter National Wildlife Refug
ess Darter National Wildlife Refugess Darter National Wildlife Refug
ess Darter National Wildlife Refug
ee
ee
e
This refuge is located within the city limits of Bessemer
near Valley Creek. The seven acres of vegetation and the
quarter acre spring-fed pond were set aside to protect the
endangered Watercress Darter. The refuge is small and
delicate but vital to the survival of this beautiful fish.
KRALKRAL
KRALKRAL
KRAL
’S W’S W
’S W’S W
’S W
AA
AA
A
TER PLANTTER PLANT
TER PLANTTER PLANT
TER PLANT
AIN, AIN,
AIN, AIN,
AIN,
Sagittaria secundifoliaSagittaria secundifolia
Sagittaria secundifoliaSagittaria secundifolia
Sagittaria secundifolia
..
..
.
Grows on rocky creek beds and nearby slopes in the
West Sipsey Fork.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: O:
O: O:
O:
THREATHREA
THREATHREA
THREA
TENED AND ENDTENED AND END
TENED AND ENDTENED AND END
TENED AND END
ANGEREDANGERED
ANGEREDANGERED
ANGERED
SPECIES OF ALABSPECIES OF ALAB
SPECIES OF ALABSPECIES OF ALAB
SPECIES OF ALAB
AMA: A GUIDE TAMA: A GUIDE T
AMA: A GUIDE TAMA: A GUIDE T
AMA: A GUIDE T
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY AO ASSIST WITH FORESTRY A
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY AO ASSIST WITH FORESTRY A
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY A
CTIVITIESCTIVITIES
CTIVITIESCTIVITIES
CTIVITIES
CAHABCAHAB
CAHABCAHAB
CAHAB
A SHINER, A SHINER,
A SHINER, A SHINER,
A SHINER,
NotrNotr
NotrNotr
Notr
opis cahabaeopis cahabae
opis cahabaeopis cahabae
opis cahabae
. .
. .
.
This fish is only found
in the Cahaba River and the Locust Fork of the Black
Warrior River.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: O:
O: O:
O:
THREATHREA
THREATHREA
THREA
TENED AND ENDTENED AND END
TENED AND ENDTENED AND END
TENED AND END
ANGERED SPECIES OFANGERED SPECIES OF
ANGERED SPECIES OFANGERED SPECIES OF
ANGERED SPECIES OF
ALABALAB
ALABALAB
ALAB
AMA: A GUIDE TAMA: A GUIDE T
AMA: A GUIDE TAMA: A GUIDE T
AMA: A GUIDE T
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY AO ASSIST WITH FORESTRY A
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY AO ASSIST WITH FORESTRY A
O ASSIST WITH FORESTRY A
CTIVITIESCTIVITIES
CTIVITIESCTIVITIES
CTIVITIES
The Triangular Kidneyshell mussel (
Ptychobranchus greeni
)
was once widely distributed throughout the entire Mobile
River system but is now found only in the Sipsey and
Locust Fork Rivers.
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
9 9
9 9
9 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Thirty-two plants found along the river
are on the endangered or threatened
species list including the Alabama
Croton (
Croton alabamensis
) shown
above and the Shoal or Cahaba Lily
(
Hymenocallis coronaria
) shown at right.
The Cahaba River provides a unique variety of habitats for plants and animals. The diversity of aquatic species in the
Cahaba River is significant on a world scale with the river harboring a greater number of fish species per mile than any
other river in North America. Many of these fish have colorful names such as the Frecklebelly Madtom (
Noturus
munitus
), the Goldline Darter (
Percina aurolineata
) and the Speckled Chub (
Macrhybopsis aestivalis
).
“The Cahaba cradles diversity of“The Cahaba cradles diversity of
“The Cahaba cradles diversity of“The Cahaba cradles diversity of
“The Cahaba cradles diversity of
life at risk.”life at risk.”
life at risk.”life at risk.”
life at risk.”
Katherine Bouma
Birmingham News reporter


The Cahaba Shiner (
Notropis cahabae
) which existed in a
76-mile stretch of the river, is now only found in a 15-mile
area. The Blue Shiner (
Cyprinella caerulea
) once existed in
a 60-mile range in the Cahaba River but has not been found
recently.
FRECKLEBELLFRECKLEBELL
FRECKLEBELLFRECKLEBELL
FRECKLEBELL
Y MADTY MADT
Y MADTY MADT
Y MADT
OM. OM.
OM. OM.
OM. Inhabits rocky riffles, rapids,
and runs of medium to large rivers.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: DOUG DO: DOUG D
O: DOUG DO: DOUG D
O: DOUG D
ARRARR
ARRARR
ARR
SNAILS. SNAILS.
SNAILS. SNAILS.
SNAILS. Various types of snails are found in
the Cahaba Basin.
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: RANDO: RAND
O: RANDO: RAND
O: RAND
Y HADDOCKY HADDOCK
Y HADDOCKY HADDOCK
Y HADDOCK
PHOPHO
PHOPHO
PHO
TT
TT
T
O: MALCOLM PIERSONO: MALCOLM PIERSON
O: MALCOLM PIERSONO: MALCOLM PIERSON
O: MALCOLM PIERSON
PHOTO: RUSSELL WRIGHT
The flowers of the Shoal
Lily, which appear in April
and May, are pollinated by
a nocturnal, hawk moth.
ts and Animalsts and Animals
ts and Animalsts and Animals
ts and Animals
plants and animals. According to The Nature Conservancy, there
cluding nearly 250 species of freshwater mussels) in Alabama.
ngered, more than any state except California and Hawaii.
Changes in land use patterns and water quality have led
to the extinction of many species in the Cahaba Basin.
For example, only about 64% of the 42 mussels that
lived in the Cahaba can be found today.
American Rivers reported the Cahaba River as one of the
ten most endangered rivers in North America.
The Nature Conservancy ranks the Cahaba Basin as the
29th most critical out of 2000 total basins in the U.S.
9
9
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
10 10
10 10
10 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
BirminghamBirmingham
BirminghamBirmingham
Birmingham
OneontaOneonta
OneontaOneonta
Oneonta
CullmanCullman
CullmanCullman
Cullman
JasperJasper
JasperJasper
Jasper
TT
TT
T
uscaloosauscaloosa
uscaloosauscaloosa
uscaloosa
DemopolisDemopolis
DemopolisDemopolis
Demopolis
BoazBoaz
BoazBoaz
Boaz
GrGr
GrGr
Gr
eensboreensbor
eensboreensbor
eensbor
oo
oo
o
Land Use in the River BasinsLand Use in the River Basins
Land Use in the River BasinsLand Use in the River Basins
Land Use in the River Basins
The water quality and quantity of the Black Warrior and Cahaba Basins are influenced by a variety of urban and rural
land uses. Land features and use patterns are revealed in satellite images, as shown on these pages. River basins are
outlined in white and the
orangorang
orangorang
orang
ee
ee
e line
represents the Fall Line
(prehistoric
seashore).
CANOEING ON A TRIBCANOEING ON A TRIB
CANOEING ON A TRIBCANOEING ON A TRIB
CANOEING ON A TRIB
UTUT
UTUT
UT
ARY OF THEARY OF THE
ARY OF THEARY OF THE
ARY OF THE
BLABLA
BLABLA
BLA
CK WCK W
CK WCK W
CK W
ARRIOR RIVERARRIOR RIVER
ARRIOR RIVERARRIOR RIVER
ARRIOR RIVER
FORESTFOREST
FORESTFOREST
FOREST
Between 75% and 77% of
the Black Warrior and
Cahaba Basins are covered
by forests which serve as
natural water filters, conserve
soil and enhance wildlife.
North of the Fall Line, the oak/pine forest
is predominant whereas south of the Fall Line,
shortleaf/loblolly pine are most common.
AA
AA
A
GRICULGRICUL
GRICULGRICUL
GRICUL
TURETURE
TURETURE
TURE
Approximately 17% of the Black Warrior and 11% of the Cahaba
Basins are covered by agriculture. Extensive areas of the northeast
and southeast portions of the Black Warrior Basin and the southwest
portions of the Cahaba Basin
are used for agriculture.
Livestock agriculture is
particularly important in the
Cullman region of the Black
Warrior Basin. Cullman
County is the leading county for
chicken production in the U.S.,
producing 164 million chickens per year. Cotton
and soybeans are primary row crops of the basins.
Black Warrior BasinBlack Warrior Basin
Black Warrior BasinBlack Warrior Basin
Black Warrior Basin
11 11
11 11
11 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
BirminghamBirmingham
BirminghamBirmingham
Birmingham
LeedsLeeds
LeedsLeeds
Leeds
MontevMontev
MontevMontev
Montev
alloallo
alloallo
allo
BrBr
BrBr
Br
ent/Centrent/Centr
ent/Centrent/Centr
ent/Centr
evilleeville
evilleeville
eville
SelmaSelma
SelmaSelma
Selma
Alabaster/PAlabaster/P
Alabaster/PAlabaster/P
Alabaster/P
elhamelham
elhamelham
elham
Land Use Percentages
BlackBlack
BlackBlack
Black
WW
WW
W
arriorarrior
arriorarrior
arrior
CahabaCahaba
CahabaCahaba
Cahaba
FF
FF
F
oror
oror
or
estest
estest
est
74.674.6
74.674.6
74.6
77.077.0
77.077.0
77.0
AgAg
AgAg
Ag
riculturricultur
riculturricultur
ricultur
ee
ee
e
16.816.8
16.816.8
16.8
10.910.9
10.910.9
10.9
Urban/SubUrban/Sub
Urban/SubUrban/Sub
Urban/Sub
urbanurban
urbanurban
urban
2.12.1
2.12.1
2.1
3.13.1
3.13.1
3.1
ClearClear
ClearClear
Clear
cut/Barrcut/Barr
cut/Barrcut/Barr
cut/Barr
enen
enen
en
1.41.4
1.41.4
1.4
2.02.0
2.02.0
2.0
WW
WW
W
etlandetland
etlandetland
etland
3.43.4
3.43.4
3.4
6.16.1
6.16.1
6.1
WW
WW
W
aterater
aterater
ater
1.51.5
1.51.5
1.5
0.70.7
0.70.7
0.7
Quarry/MiningQuarry/Mining
Quarry/MiningQuarry/Mining
Quarry/Mining
0.30.3
0.30.3
0.3
0.40.4
0.40.4
0.4
URBAN/SUBURBAN/SUB
URBAN/SUBURBAN/SUB
URBAN/SUB
URBANURBAN
URBANURBAN
URBAN
The Birmingham metropolitan area contains over one
million people, nearly 1/4 of Alabama’s population. This
city straddles the divide between the Black Warrior and
Cahaba Basins and is expanding at a particularly rapid rate
in the Cahaba Basin.
Population growth in the Cahaba Basin is the highest in
the state. Although urban/suburban areas comprise only
3% of the total land use in the basin, they are a driving
force in shaping water quality conditions in the upper
portion.
Urban centers in the basins, including Birmingham,
Tuscaloosa and Cullman, impact water quality by such
things as stormwater runoff and soil erosion from
construction sites.
A COA CO
A COA CO
A CO
AL STRIP MINE TYPICAL OF THOSE INAL STRIP MINE TYPICAL OF THOSE IN
AL STRIP MINE TYPICAL OF THOSE INAL STRIP MINE TYPICAL OF THOSE IN
AL STRIP MINE TYPICAL OF THOSE IN
THE BLATHE BLA
THE BLATHE BLA
THE BLA
CK WCK W
CK WCK W
CK W
ARRIOR AND CAHABARRIOR AND CAHAB
ARRIOR AND CAHABARRIOR AND CAHAB
ARRIOR AND CAHAB
A BA B
A BA B
A B
ASINSASINS
ASINSASINS
ASINS
WETLWETL
WETLWETL
WETL
ANDAND
ANDAND
AND
Wetlands are abundant in both basins below the Fall Line, where the rivers widen and meander.
Approximately 3% of the Black Warrior and 6% of the Cahaba Basins are covered by wetlands.
Common wetland vegetation consists of oak/gum/cypress forests.
QQ
QQ
Q
UU
UU
U
ARRARR
ARRARR
ARR
Y/MININGY/MINING
Y/MININGY/MINING
Y/MINING
The middle portion of the Black Warrior Basin has
been the largest, southern coal-producing area in North
America. Coal bed methane extraction continues to
be a major industry. Total land cover of mining in the
basins is small but environmental impacts have been
large.
CahabaCahaba
CahabaCahaba
Cahaba
BasinBasin
BasinBasin
Basin
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
12 12
12 12
12 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Streams of the Black Warrior Basin have been altered by locks and
dams. The natural flow patterns, water levels and critical habitats
such as shallow riffles and shoals were changed, and the free
upstream movement of aquatic species was reduced or eliminated.
Balancing Economy and Environment inBalancing Economy and Environment in
Balancing Economy and Environment inBalancing Economy and Environment in
Balancing Economy and Environment in
the River Basinsthe River Basins
the River Basinsthe River Basins
the River Basins
Abundant water, timber, rich soils, coal deposits and other natural resources have been important for boosting Alabama’s
economy, creating jobs and providing necessary products for all of us. The way these natural resources are used may
cause environmental problems that negatively affect human health and our quality of life. More than half of these
problems come from nonpoint source pollution that enters streams from broad areas of both urban and rural portions of
a watershed. Possible problems may include...
AgAg
AgAg
Ag
riculturricultur
riculturricultur
ricultur
ee
ee
e
❖ Excess nutrients and bacteria from animal wastes
❖ Runoff of pesticides and other chemicals from cropland and pastures
9
–
”
DamsDams
DamsDams
Dams
❖ Changes in natural river flow patterns and levels
❖ Drastic water temperature changes and low oxygen levels
from deep water releases from reservoirs
3
FF
FF
F
oror
oror
or
estry Practicesestry Practices
estry Practicesestry Practices
estry Practices
❖ Erosion and runoff from loss of land cover
Erosion and sedimentation has been a problem in
Alabama as far back as colonial settlement. In the
1930’s, the Soil Conservation Service, now called the
Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), was
formed to address erosion problems and other land
use issues.
SOIL EROSION AND STREAM SEDIMENTATION
FOLLOWING A FOREST CLEARCUT. PHOTOS: RUSSELL WRIGHT
Concentrated animal feeding operations
(CAFOs), such as poultry and swine feedlots
produce tons of animal waste per year in
Alabama. Animal wastes in streams may
result in excess algal growth and low oxygen
levels that harm aquatic life.
PHOTO: KEN HAMMOND
PHOTO: LARRY RANA
PHOTO: ALABAMA POWER COMPANY
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
13 13
13 13
13 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Yellowboy (iron
oxide) in stream.
SUSPENDED METAL PRECIPITATES DOWNSTREAM OF A MINE.
PHOTOS: ALABAMA COOPERATIVE FISH & WILDLIFE RESEARCH UNIT
Rapid urbanization and
development in and around
Birmingham is taking a toll
on the diverse ecosystem of
the rivers.
“As paved and hard surfaces sprawl“As paved and hard surfaces sprawl
“As paved and hard surfaces sprawl“As paved and hard surfaces sprawl
“As paved and hard surfaces sprawl
across the watersheds, less open spaceacross the watersheds, less open space
across the watersheds, less open spaceacross the watersheds, less open space
across the watersheds, less open space
is left for water to soak down andis left for water to soak down and
is left for water to soak down andis left for water to soak down and
is left for water to soak down and
filter through to the groundwater orfilter through to the groundwater or
filter through to the groundwater orfilter through to the groundwater or
filter through to the groundwater or
springs that feed the river.”springs that feed the river.”
springs that feed the river.”springs that feed the river.”
springs that feed the river.”
Randy Chafin
Birmingham Water Works


RUNOFF FROM STREETS AND
LAWNS ENTERS STORM DRAINS
AND FLOWS DIRECTLY TO
STREAMS UNTREATED
CONSTRUCTION SITES EXPOSE
LARGE AMOUNTS OF SOIL
IMPROPER MAINTENANCE OF SILT FENCES
CONTRIBUTES TO SOIL EROSION
E
Industrial DischarIndustrial Dischar
Industrial DischarIndustrial Dischar
Industrial Dischar
gg
gg
g
ee
ee
e
❖ Toxic chemicals such as PCBs
❖ Mercury and other heavy
metals
¾
MiningMining
MiningMining
Mining
❖ Soil erosion, sedimentation
and stream turbidity
❖ Toxic metal runoff
❖ Acidic water from active or
abandoned mines
AN INDUSTRY PIPE IS A
POINT SOURCE DISCHARGE.
Over 100 industries are permitted
to release treated wastewater into
the Cahaba River.
%
Urban/SubUrban/Sub
Urban/SubUrban/Sub
Urban/Sub
urban Devurban Dev
urban Devurban Dev
urban Dev
elopmentelopment
elopmentelopment
elopment
❖ Erosion and sedimentation from
construction sites
❖ Storm water runoff (oil, litter, etc.)
from streets and parking lots
❖ Lawn and garden fertilizer runoff
❖ Inadequate and failing septic systems
Best Management Practices (BMPs) and good planning can reduce
or eliminate these problems. Specific BMPs for land use activities
may be obtained from the NRCS, the Alabama Soil and Water
Conservation Districts, the Office of Surface Mining, the Alabama
Cooperative Extension System or ADEM.
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is
caused by leaching of metals from
coal mines and has severely
impacted many streams in the
Black Warrior and Cahaba Basins.
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
14 14
14 14
14 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
There are many water policies and laws from various federal, state and local agencies that are sometimes difficult to
understand. Virtually all water quality protection laws in Alabama stem from the Federal Clean Water Act, enacted by the
U.S. Congress in 1972. The quality of many streams and lakes has improved dramatically with cooperative effort by
federal, state, tribal and local governments and the general public to implement activities that restore and maintain the
integrity of the nation’s waters. Much work remains to be done, however, particularly with nonpoint source pollution.
Water Policy, Law andWater Policy, Law and
Water Policy, Law andWater Policy, Law and
Water Policy, Law and
Citizen InvolvementCitizen Involvement
Citizen InvolvementCitizen Involvement
Citizen Involvement
The Clean Water Act is subdivided into many
sections that influence Alabama’s water.
Three of the main sections are:
Section 305
Requires an assessm
ent of w
aterbodies ev
ery tw
o y
ears
to determ
ine w
hether designated uses ar
e being m
et.
T
he B
iennial Water Quality Report to C
ongr
ess, or
the 305(b) Report, provides sum
m
ar
y inform
ation
about the quality of the state’s w
aters.
Section 303
Charges states and tribes with setting specific water quality criteria and developing pollution control programs
to meet them. Designated uses may include drinking water, recreation, aesthetics, irrigation, fishing, swimming
or a combination of these and other activities.
Waterbodies that do not meet water quality standards for their designated water use classification are included
in a 303(d) list (www.epa.gov/waters). EPA requires ADEM
to dev
elop total maximum daily loads (TM
DLs)
for each waterbody included on the 303(d) list. The TM
DL is the maximum quantity of a pollutant that can
enter a waterbody without adversely affecting the designated use classification of the waterbody.
Section 319
Provides federal funds through the U.S. EPA to ADEM for
educational and technical assistance and programs such as
Alabama Water Watch and the Clean Water Partnerships.
(www.epa.gov/region4/water/nps/grants/index.htm)
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
15 15
15 15
15 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
Partnerships of local, citizen-based and governmental groups have a high potential for restoring degraded
habitats and protecting water quality.
The Alabama Clean Water Partnership was created in 1998
to coordinate stakeholders for the restoration and protection
of river basins in accordance with the Clean Water Act. A
resulting Watershed Management Plan for each basin would
represent the diverse interests of local concerned citizens,
landowners, public officials, industries and agencies.
Citizens may contact ADEM to become involved in the:
Black Warrior River Basin Clean Water Partnership
or
Cahaba River Basin Clean Water Partnership
Citizens can do mCitizens can do m
Citizens can do mCitizens can do m
Citizens can do m
uch to pruch to pr
uch to pruch to pr
uch to pr
otect their wotect their w
otect their wotect their w
otect their w
atershed by:atershed by:
atershed by:atershed by:
atershed by:
❖ Becoming aware of key water issues
❖ Becoming part of a citizen group
❖ Neighbor-to-neighbor persuasion to reduce pollution
❖ Being the “eyes and ears” for lake/stream changes and pollution
❖ Raising local awareness and public outreach
❖ Advocating for policy changes and enforcement
❖ Participating in watershed-based protection plans including the TMDL process
Many citizen groups have formed within the Black Warrior and Cahaba Basins, and several also monitor water quality with
the Alabama Water Watch program**. Although citizen groups come and go, the groups below have existed for several
years and have provided significant input for environmental protection.
Acmar Moody Environmental Justice Society**
Alabama Environmental Council**
Alabama Rivers Alliance
Bayview Lake Cleanup Association
Black Warrior/Cahaba Land Trust
Cahaba Basin Project/Judson College**
Cahaba River Society**
Committee for the Preservation of the Lake Purdy Area
Five Mile Creek Action Committee**
Friends and Advocates of the Little Cahaba, Organized**
Friends of Buck Creek Watershed
Friends of Hurricane Creek
Friends of Locust Fork River**
Friends of Mulberry Fork**
Friends of Shades Creek**
Friends of the Little Cahaba River**
Friends of Valley Creek**
Hanceville High School Envirothon Team**
Hurricane Creek Watershed Forum
Lake Tuscaloosa Preservation Association
Montevallo Area Water Watch**
Old Mill Trace Homeowners Association**
People Helping Patton Creek
Sierra Club, Cahaba Chapter**
Smart Growth Coalition
Smith Lake Civic Association**
Smith Lake Environmental Preservation Committee**
Society to Advance the Resources of Turkey Creek
Turkey Creek Watershed Association
Village Creek Human and Environmental Justice Society
Citizens Guide To Alabama Rivers: Black Warrior And Cahaba Rivers
16 16
16 16
16 ❖ Citizen Guide to Alabama Rivers
The Nature Conservancy of Alabama
205-251-1155
http://nature.org/states/alabama
Office of Surface Mining
205-290-7282 ext. 16
www.osmre.gov
The Water Course (Alabama Power Company)
800-280-4442
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
www.epa.gov
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
www.southeast.fws.gov
U.S. Geological Survey
www.usgs.gov
“In 1819, when Alabama entered the“In 1819, when Alabama entered the
“In 1819, when Alabama entered the“In 1819, when Alabama entered the
“In 1819, when Alabama entered the
Union, its leaders designed a great sealUnion, its leaders designed a great seal
Union, its leaders designed a great sealUnion, its leaders designed a great seal
Union, its leaders designed a great seal
that featured the state’s waterways. Inthat featured the state’s waterways. In
that featured the state’s waterways. Inthat featured the state’s waterways. In
that featured the state’s waterways. In
adopting this symbol they affirmed theiradopting this symbol they affirmed their
adopting this symbol they affirmed theiradopting this symbol they affirmed their
adopting this symbol they affirmed their
belief that the future of Alabama lay withbelief that the future of Alabama lay with
belief that the future of Alabama lay withbelief that the future of Alabama lay with
belief that the future of Alabama lay with
its rivers. It did, and it still does.”its rivers. It did, and it still does.”
its rivers. It did, and it still does.”its rivers. It did, and it still does.”
its rivers. It did, and it still does.”
Harvey Jackson, III
Rivers of History


Want More?Want More?
Want More?Want More?
Want More?
FF
FF
F
or further information about Alabama’or further information about Alabama’
or further information about Alabama’or further information about Alabama’
or further information about Alabama’
ss
ss
s
ww
ww
w
aterwaterw
aterwaterw
aterw
ays or how to gays or how to g
ays or how to gays or how to g
ays or how to g
et invet inv
et invet inv
et inv
olvolv
olvolv
olv
ed in pred in pr
ed in pred in pr
ed in pr
otectingotecting
otectingotecting
otecting
your wyour w
your wyour w
your w
atershed, contact:atershed, contact:
atershed, contact:atershed, contact:
atershed, contact:
Alabama Cooperative Extension System
www.aces.edu
Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries
www.agi.state.al.us
Alabama Department of Environmental Management
334-271-7700
www.adem.state.al.us
Alabama Department of Conservation and
Natural Resources
www.dcnr.state.al.us
Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Committee
334-242-2620
Alabama Water Watch
888-844-4785
www.alabamawaterwatch.org
CAWACO Resource Conservation and
Development Council
205-251-8139
Geological Survey of Alabama
www.gsa.state.al.us
Legacy, Inc.
800-240-5115
www.legacyenved.com
National Agricultural Library -
Water Quality Information Center
www.nal.usda.gov/wqic
Natural Resource Conservation Service
www.ga.nrcs.usda.gov/al/fieldstaff.html
Stormwater Management Authority, Inc.
205-325-1440
www.swma.com